小孩也要戴太阳镜?Do kids need to wear sunglasses?

Q: Do kids need to wear sunglasses?A: Yes, the earlier children wear sunglasses the better they're protected from eye conditions in later life.小孩子也应该戴太阳镜吗?对,太阳镜戴得越早对孩子未来的眼保护越有利。


小孩也要戴太阳镜?Do kids need to wear sunglasses?

It's habit to slather kids in sunscreen and pop on their hats before they go out in the sun. But do your kids wear sunglasses? Have you ever wondered if they need to? 烈日当头,孩子出门前,你习惯地给他抹上大量的防晒霜,戴上帽子,但是你给他们太阳镜吗?你是否确实考虑过他们有此必要吗? Well, kids should definitely wear sunglasses while they are outside, says Dr Michael Jones, paediatric eye specialist at the Children's Hospital at Westmead and the Sydney Eye Hospital, NSW. 孩子们户外活动时的确应该戴太阳镜,Westmead儿童医院及悉尼眼科医院的小儿眼科专家Michael Jones医生说。 In fact, wearing sunglasses as a youngster can help protect against the most common eye conditions that develop later in life. 实际上,小孩佩戴太阳镜对预防他未来一生中一些最常见的眼科疾患都有作用。 We tend to forget that a lot of our sun exposure happens when we are children, when we spend a lot of time outdoors in direct sunlight, Jones says. 我们一定忘记了,我们一生中户外活动最多,暴露于阳光直射之下时间最长的是儿童时期,Jones说。 UV light from the sun is a form of radiation and it can damage cells in the eye. 阳光中的紫外线对可对眼球中的细胞造成损伤。 There's no firm evidence that children's eyes are more susceptible to UV light than adults'. But we do know the longer eyes are exposed without protection the more damage they accumulate from these harmful rays. 虽然目前没有证据表明儿童的眼睛比成人更容易受到紫外线的伤害,但是我们确实知道在无保护的情况下,眼损伤是可以积累的。 Common eye conditions常见的眼科疾患 UV radiation can cause cells on the surface of the eye or inside the eye to divide abnormally. 紫外线辐射可导致眼球表面或眼球内的细胞分化异常。 This can in turn cause the development of tumours, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). 由此,可引起眼部良性或恶性肿瘤。 Eye cancer is relatively rare in Australia with less than 500 cases a year. 眼部肿瘤在澳洲相对罕见,每年少于500例。 Pterygium, or Surfer's Eye, is a benign growth in the eye that is extremely common in the coastal regions of Australia and is caused by sun exposure. 翼状胬肉,又称“冲浪者眼”,是澳洲海边居民最常见的良性疾病,这也是由于长期暴露于阳光之下所致。 The growth affects the cornea, which is the transparent dome that covers the eye and helps it focus, and the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent tissue that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. 此胬肉生长影响角膜,角膜是眼表面透明且有一定屈光作用而帮助聚焦的,结膜是一层薄薄的透明组织,覆盖于眼白和眼睑内侧。 "If you spend a lot of time in the sun and don't wear sunglasses the stem cells around the cornea and the conjunctiva don't stay very healthy and you can get the conjunctiva growing over the cornea," Jones says. “假如你没有戴太阳镜并且在阳光下呆得太久,角膜周围的干细胞和结膜就不能保持健康,结膜就爬到角膜上去了”Jones说。

"We see more of this condition in Australia than anywhere else in the world due to our high levels of sun exposure. Often times they need surgery because they are uncomfortable or affecting vision. You can prevent changes in the eye over a lifetime, so wearing sunglasses should start early," he says. “我们发现,由于过高水平的阳光照射,翼状胬肉在澳洲比世界任何地方都多。这个病常常不得不接受手术治疗,因为翼状胬肉令患者不适且影响视力。为预防生这种病,就要从小戴太阳镜”他说。 Sun exposure is also thought to negatively affect the eye's lens, which helps refract light, the retina, which is a thin layer of tissue that lines the inner eye and captures light, and the macula, which is part of the retina and is responsible for detailed central vision. 暴露于阳光之下对眼球中的晶状体也有害。晶状体起到折射光线聚焦于视网膜的作用。视网膜是眼球内的一层感受光线的细胞,其中的黄斑部分是人们做负责细致观察的中央视野。 This contributes in some part to diseases such as macular degeneration and cataracts. 晶状体受损会导致黄斑变性和白内障。 How often and how early? 太阳镜应在何时戴? Children should wear sunglasses anytime they are outdoors for a significant amount of time, such as if they are playing outside, and especially when they are in direct sunlight, Jones says. 孩子们户外活动时就应该戴太阳镜,特别是在阳光直射时,Jones说。 You don't have to spend a fortune buying sunglasses for your children, just ensure the pair you choose have standard UV 400 lenses or 100% UV protection. 你不必为孩子们花大价钱买昂贵的太阳镜,只要选择标准的UV400镜片或100%防紫外线的产品就行了。 Novelty sunglasses with coloured lenses aren't a good idea because they don't provide as much protection, he says. 那些有色的新型的太阳镜并不太好,因为那些镜片不能提供完全的防护,他说。 It's never too early for children to wear sunglasses, but it can be difficult to keep them on their faces. 小孩戴太阳镜越早越好,唯一困难是要在他们的脸上把眼镜戴住。 If older children are having trouble wearing sunglasses then the next best thing is a broad brimmed hat that provides some shade for the eyes. 稍大些的孩子戴镜不怕麻烦的话,那么给他们戴宽边眼镜是最好的了,因为这样还有遮荫效果。 Buying children's sunglasses with an elasticated band around the back can also help keep sunglasses on and prevent them getting lost. 买个有镜腿带橡皮筋的太阳镜不仅可以有助于戴住眼镜,还可以防止眼镜滑落。 For young babies, a cover over their pram will help protect their skin and eyes from the sun's rays. 对于小婴儿,遮盖住婴儿车就可以防止眼睛和皮肤受到阳光直射。 Putting sunglasses on your kids should be part of the everyday sun protection routine, Jones says. Jones说,给孩子戴太阳镜应是日常防晒的常规。 "Kids get exposed to an extraordinary amount of sun in their early days and it really does have a cumulative effect. We've got to make sunglasses part of that slip, slop, slap routine," he says. Jones还说,“孩子们自小就暴露于过多的阳光下是有累积效应的,我们必须让戴太阳镜成为一个常规。




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